750 words minimum (3 pages minimum)
Primary Document to USE (No external sources allowed except the ones provided below.)
“The Achievements of the Deified Augustus (RES GESTAE DIVI AUGUSTI)”
Essay Question: **
“Why was the rule of Augustus successful?”
Font (12)
Every page must be numbered (1, 2, 3, 4)
Cover page
Cover page
Title of Paper
Course Title (Western Civilization)
Section number (11)
Your name
Your Essay will have 3 parts:
Introduction (1 paragraph)
Briefly introduce the topic of your essay.
Identify your primary document (by name)
Introduce your primary document:
Who wrote it, where was it written, when, why, what kind of document
State clearly the essay question
Briefly state how you plan to answer your essay question
(what will be the 3 main ideas developed in your essay)
Body of your Essay (4 paragraphs):
b) Summary of the document (primary document, 300 words MAX.): 1 paragraph
In your own words, no quotes, all the document
c) Answer your essay question (articles/ebooks): 3 paragraphs
““Why was the rule of Augustus successful?””
You should have 3 ideas to support your answer
1 idea= 1 paragraph (like the midterm)
At the beginning of each paragraph, present clearly in one sentence
the idea of that paragraph
Explain your idea
Use Examples from the articles/ebooks to prove it.
Conclusion (1 paragraph)
Brief summary of the 3 ideas
Explain the significance of your subject:
why is this document important in history?
SOURCES to use (no external sources)
You MUST have 4 sources minimum:
Primary Document: “The Achievements of the Deified Augustus (RES GESTAE DIVI AUGUSTI)”
Minimum 3 Articles/ebooks chosen from the list
NO OTHER SOURCES WILL BE ACCEPTED (not even the textbook!)
List of Articles/ebooks for your Essay
Eck, Werner. “The Practical Implementation of Political Power: Governing the Empire”. In Age of Augustus, Chapter 10, pp. 89-99. Williston: Wiley, 2007.
Galinsky, Karl. “The Augustan Empire: Unity and Diversity”. In Augustus : Introduction to the Life of an Emperor, Chapter 7, pp. 159-175. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Grainger, John D. “Augustus”. In The Roman Imperial Succession, Chapter One, pp. 3-22. Yorkshire: Pen & Sword History, 2020.
Hickson, Frances V. “Augustus ‘Triumphator’: Manipulation of the Triumphal Theme in the Political Program of Augustus.” Latomus 50, no. 1 (1991): 124–38.
Shotter, David. “The Empire and the Augustan Peace”. In Augustus Caesar, Chapter 7, pp. 71-85. Vol. 2nd ed. Lancaster Pamphlets in Ancient History. London: Routledge, 2005.
Talbert, Richard J. A. “Augustus and the Senate.” Greece & Rome 31, no. 1 (1984): 55–63.
How to find these ARTICLES in the Library databases? ******
Go on JAC website: https://jac.cegep.opalsinfo.net/bin/home
Click on Services to Students, then on Library
Click on Databases
List of the only acceptable Databases of articles:
Academic OneFile
Academic Search Complete
Search by title of article
(tip: put title in quotation marks “……”)
Always open the document with PDF.
How to find ebooks in the Library databases?
Go on JAC website
Click on Services to Students, then on Library
Click on ebooks
Click on Ebsco Ebooks or ProQuest Ebook Central
Search by title of ebook
Footnotes (bottom of the page) or endnotes (end of paper, before bibliography)
Papers with no bibliography and notes will automatically receive a ZERO
Bibliography: (put the word, centered, bold)
End of essay
Last page (new page after the conclusion)
List in alphabetical order of the 4 sources
In The Chicago Style (CMS) only
********Example: Bibliography format********
Example of primary document:
Appian. ʺThe Assassination of Julius Caesarʺ.
Example of article:
Smith, Alison K. “I love western civilization.” Journal of Modern History 104, no. 6 (Fall 2013): 439–58.
Example of chapter in ebook
Goldsworthy, Adrian Keith. “Dictator.” In Caesar: Life of a Colossus, chapter 22. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.
Notes: little number inside your essay
Footnotes (bottom of the page) OR
Endnotes (at the end of your paper, before bibliography)
In The Chicago Style only
********Examples: Footnotes OR Endnotes*******
1 Alison K. Smith, “I love western civilization,” Journal of Modern History
104, no. 6 (Fall 2013), 445. (exact page where you found info)
2. Appian, ʺThe Assassination of Julius Caesarʺ.
3. Smith, 446.
4. Adrian Keith Goldsworthy, “Dictator,” in Caesar: Life of a Colossus (New Haven: Yale
University Press, 2006), 475.
5. Smith, 453
WHY do I need to cite my sources?
to acknowledge words, ideas or opinions that are not your own;
to allow the reader to locate information they find useful.
WHEN and HOW do I cite my sources?
If you use another person’s words, put them in quotation marks and cite the source of the words at the end of the citation.
If you summarize or paraphrase (rephrase the material in your own words), you still need to cite your source.
How? At the end of the sentence or at the end of the paragraph.
Different forms of plagiarism
Word-for-Word transcription, without quotation marks and notes
Paraphrasing: if you change a few words in a text, the text is NOT your own.
You still have to provide the reference to your source (footnote/endnote).
Papers (sentences, paragraphs, sections) copied from the web
Papers written by your friends
Papers written for another class…
1) General Presentation: basic requirements
(cover page, double spaced, 3 pages minimum, well-written)
2) Bibliography and Notes: use of sources, format
3) Introduction
4) Body of Essay:
Summary of the document
Answer (3 ideas)
5) Conclusion
Use this document: this is the main one to base the essay on.
Introduction: The Res Gestae Divi Augusti (“the achievements of the deified Augustus”) are the official autobiography of Augustus, the man who had renovated the Roman Empire during his long reign from 31 BCE to 14 CE. The text tells us how he wanted to be remembered. (Augustus, Res Gestae, Livius.org)
1. When I was nineteen year old, on my own initiative and at my own expense I raised an army, with which I restored freedom to the state which was oppressed by the power of a clique. For that reason the senate passed honorary decrees enrolling me in its order in the consulship of Gaius Pansa and Aulus Hirtius (43 B.C.E.), granting me the privilege of speaking among the ex-consuls and giving me imperium —the right of military command. In the same year, when both consuls had fallen in battle, the people named me consul and appointed me one of a commission of three (triumvir) for the re-establishment of the Republic.
2. I drove the murderers of my father into exile, and avenged their crime through legal tribunals; and afterwards, when they made war on the republic, I twice defeated them in battle.
3. I undertook civil and foreign wars by land and sea throughout the whole world, and as victor I spared the lives of all citizens who sought pardon. When foreign nations could safely be pardoned I preferred to preserve rather than to destroy them. 500,000 Roman citizens took a military oath of obedience to me. Of this number, I settled more than 300,000 in colonies or sent them back to their home towns after their service was completed; to all I gave lands or money as a reward for their military service
4. Twice I was honored with ovations and I celebrated three curule triumphs and I was twenty- one times saluted as imperator. When the senate decreed still more triumphs in my honor, I declined them all. Fifty-five times the senate decreed that thanks be offered to the immortal gods on account of successes on land and sea gained by me or by lieutenants acting under my command.
5. In the consulship of Marcus Marcellus and Lucius Arruntius (22 B.C.E.), the people and the senate both offered me the dictatorship, both in my absence and when I was at Rome, but I refused it. During the great famine I did take charge of the grain -supply, which 1 so administered that, in a few days and at my own expense, I freed the whole city from the fear and present danger of starvation.
6. the senate and the Roman people agreed that I should be appointed sole guardian of laws and morals with supreme power, but I refused any office offered to me that was contrary to the custom of our ancestors.
9. The senate decreed that every fifth year the consuls and priests should undertake vows for my health. Moreover, all the citizens, individually and on behalf of their towns, have unanimously and continuously offered sacrifices for my health at all the seats of the gods.
15. To the Roman plebs I paid each man 300 sesterces under my father’s will, and in my own name I gave them 400 each from the booty of war in my fifth consulship (29 B.C.E.). In my tenth consulship (24 B.C.E.) I again paid out of my own inheritance a bonus of 400 sesterces to each man, and in my eleventh consulship (23 B.C.E.) I bought grain with my own money and made twelve food distributions.
16. I paid cash to the towns for the lands that I granted to soldiers in my fourth consulship (30 B.C.E.), and later in the consulship of Marcus Crassus and Gnaeus Lentulus (14 B.C.E.). I paid a total of about 600,000,000 sesterces for Italian land, and about 260,000,000 sesterces for provincial lands. In the recollection of my contemporaries, 1 was the first and only one to have done this of all who founded military colonies in Italy or the provinces.
17. Four times I helped the treasury with my own money, so that I transferred to the administrators of the treasury 150,000,000 sesterces. In the consulship of Marcus Lepidus and Lucius Arruntius, I paid 170,000,000 sesterces from my inheritance to the military treasury which was founded by my advice so that cash bonuses could be paid to soldiers who had served for twenty years or more.
20. I rebuilt the Capitol and the theater of Pompey—both at great expense— without inscribing my own name. I repaired the channels of the aqueducts, which in several places were collapsing through age, and I doubled the supply of the Marcian aqueduct, by bringing in a new spring. I completed the Forum Julium and the basilica between the temples of Castor and Saturn, works begun and almost finished by my father, and when that same basilica was destroyed by fire, I began to rebuild it on an enlarged site, in the name of my sons, and in case I do not finish it in my life-time, I have ordered my heirs to complete it.
22. I presented three gladiatorial games in my own name and five in the name of my sons or grandsons; at these games about 10,000 men fought. Twice in my own name and a third time in that of my grandson I presented to the people spectacles of athletes summoned from all parts. Twenty-six times I presented in my own name or in that of my sons and grandsons beast-hunts with African animals in the circus, forum or amphitheater, during which about 3,500 beasts were killed.
23. I presented a display of a naval battle as a show for the people across the Tiber in a place now occupied by the grove of the Caesars, where a site 1,800 feet long and 1,200 broad was excavated. In that spot thirty beaked triremes or biremes and more smaller vessels engaged in battle. In these fleets about 3,000 men fought in addition to the rowers.
25. I freed the sea of pirates. In that war I captured about 30,000 slaves who had fled from their masters and taken up arms against the state, and I returned them to their masters for punishment.
26. I expanded the frontiers of all those provinces of the Roman people bordered by peoples not subject to our government. I brought peace to the Gallic and Spanish provinces as well as to Germany, an area bounded by the Ocean from Cadiz to the mouth of the Elbe. I brought peace to the Alps, from the region near the Adriatic all the way to the Tuscan sea, yet without waging an unjust war on any people.
27. I added Egypt to the empire of the Roman people. Even forty-five years after the battle of Actium in 31 B.C.E., Augustus refuses to refer to Marc Antony by name.
34. In my sixth and seventh consulships (28-27 B.C.E.), after I had extinguished civil war, and with the consent of all I was in complete control of affairs, I transferred the republic from my power to the authority of the senate and Roman people. For this service of mine I was called Augustus by decree of the senate, and the door-posts of my house were publicly decorated with bay leaves, a civic crown was fixed over my door, and a golden shield was placed in the Curia Julia, Though Augustus referred to the events of 27 B.C.E. as the restoration of the Republic, he in fact retained all effective power. given me by the senate and Roman people because of my courage, clemency, justice and poetry. Thereafter I excelled all in authority, although I possessed no more official power than others who were my colleagues in each office.
35. In my thirteenth consulship (2 B.C.E.), the senate, the equestrian order and the entire Roman people called me “Father of the Country,” and decreed that this title should be inscribed on the porch of my house, in the Senate House, and in the Forum Augustum below the four-horse chariot which was placed there in my honor by decree of the senate.