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Category: Anatomy (Page 1 of 17)

After viewing this module’s content CHAPTER 18 – SEE BOOK ATTACHED, answer each

After viewing this module’s content CHAPTER 18 – SEE BOOK ATTACHED, answer each of the following questions. All of your answers should be written in your own words, using full sentences, correct terminology, and proper spelling and grammar.
Explain the anatomical concepts associated with hematology. Summarize this module’s key points in 5-6 sentences.
Explain the physiological concepts associated with hematology. Summarize this module’s key points in 5-6 sentences.
How will you apply the concepts you have learned about hematology in real life and in your future career?
Which topic within this module has been the most valuable to your learning experience and why?
Which topic(s) within this module did you struggle to understand and why?

I just need a review on this particular peer discussion. Please feel free to ad

I just need a review on this particular peer discussion. Please feel free to add any questions you my have.The intervertebral disc is composed of nucleus pulposus (jelly) which is surrounded by the annulus fibrosus (the donut) a thick outer layer.
A disc herniation is when the nucleus pulposes (the jelly) protrudes out of the annulus fibrosus. This occurs from a weakening or a tear in the annulus fibrosus either caused by acute trauma or repetitive microtrauma (faulty mechanics/posture or repetitive bending) that result in a failure of the tissue.
General Background:
Mechanisms for cute trauma: twisting while lifting a heavy or moderate load away from the midline of the body, lifting improperly (bending over and lifting moderate-heavy load without proper spinal stabilization), motor vehicle accident, injury, degeneration or a combination thereof (degeneration and an athletic injury or slipping/falling etc).
Early protrusion or a disc bulge (slight protrusion of the nucleus pulposes) does not always cause pain, pain is present when the nucleus pulposus truly herniates through the annulus pulposus and places pressure on adjacent structures such as the spinal cord (posterior herniation), or causes nerve root compression (posterior lateral herniation).
Herniations can occur at any level, however L4/L5, L5/S1 are the most common levels for disc herniation to occur.
Centralized back pain
point tenderness over the spinal level at which the herniation has occurred
muscle spasm/tightness
sciatica and/or other nerve compression symptoms.
Red Flag Symptoms:
Bowel or bladder dysfunction; pain with intercourse
debilitating pain that affect ability to perform activities of daily living lasting longer than 12 weeks with NO improvement
gross motor loss; weakness, loss of sensation
If a nerve is compressed patients will c/o or experience radicular symptoms which is when they experience pain down the thigh, butt or along the foot. The particular pattern/area or location depends on which level of the lumbar was affected with the injury. In severe cases motor control for that specific nerve can also be affected (this is when someone may experience drop foot and they have trouble dorsiflexing their ankle during their gait cycle and may trip over their foot – that is considered a ‘red flag’ for the potential for surgical intervention).
Physical Therapy: Mechanics, mechanics, mechanics! Low back pain is one of the most debilitating injuries in the US! More often than not it can be addressed with out patient physical therapy addressing mechanics and being more mindful in the way in which we move, using modalities to help decrease pain and creating a movement plan to help the individual remain pain free and healthy moving forward.
The intervertebral discs are filled with fluid and the first hour of the day they will be at their ‘fullest’ so it is recommended to avoid flexing the spine esp with a load (for those of you who workout first thing in the morning – make sure you have an HOUR before you are deadlifting or performing other heavy lifts). Or those lifting your child out of their crib (do your best!). With the discs being “full” imagine flexing your spine and as you do that the vertebrae separate which is the perfect time for the jelly to say “I’m going shoot out!” with the right amount of wear and tear it only takes that one final episode! With repetitive stress the ligaments and soft tissue around the disc gets ‘worn’ down which ultimately leads to bending over to pick up a pencil and your “back goes out”.
Heathy movement habits & a healthy diet. Excess weight can increase pressure on the vertebrae which can increase symptoms. Incorporating or increasing healthy movement patterns can
Cortisone injections: Can help to manage pain. At times if the patient does not present with red flag symptoms or diagnostic testing to warrant surgery an injection can help them get “over the hump” and onto the next phase if the pain is long lasting and debilitating.
Surgery: This should in most cases be last case scenario UNLESS you are experiencing one of the RED flag symptoms above which can be an immediate indication for surgical intervention.
Herniated discs can have a huge impact on psychosocial aspect of injury and there is no ‘timeline’ like with a broken bone. Every individual heals different depending on the range/extent of the injury, how it is treated afterwards, and what caution and care is taken moving forward. LBP can range from 6 weeks to 9 years.
Ultimate Back Fitness and Performance – Stuart McGill
Examination of Musculoskeletal Injuries – Sandra Schultz, Peggy Houglum, David Perrin

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I just need a review on this particular peer discussion. Please feel free to add any questions you my have.
Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory disease that causes some of the bones in the spine to fuse over time. Due to the fusing the spine becomes less flexible and can result in a hunched posture. In some cases, the ribs can be affected which can make it difficult for someone to take a deep breath.
This disease is more common in men than women and typically the signs and symptoms begin in early adulthood. In some cases, inflammation can occur in the eyes which is more common.
Early signs and symptoms include:
Pain and stiffness in the lower back and hips
Neck pain
These symptoms might worsen, improve, or stop at irregular intervals.
Areas of the body that are most affected are:
The joint between the base of the spine and the pelvis
The vertebrae in the lower back
The places where the tendons and ligaments attach to bone, mainly in the spine, but sometimes along the back of the heal.
The cartilage between the breastbone and the ribs
The hip and shoulder joints
When lower back pain or buttock pain comes on slowly, worsens in the morning or in the middle of the night, or if pain improves with exercise and worsens with rest is when you should see a doctor. If you eye becomes painful, red, severe light sensitivity, or blurred vision you should see an eye doctor immediately.
Ankylosing spondylitis is diagnosed by a physical being done by a doctor where range of motion is tested. Imaging such as X-rays and lab tests will also be ordered as well.
There is no cure for Ankylosing Spondylitis but there are treatments available that can lessen symptoms. Some treatments can relieve pain, stiffness, and prevent or delay complications and spinal deformity, and slow progression of the disease.
Some medications that are given are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) but if those are not effective doctors also sometimes prescribe a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blocker or an interleukin-17 (IL-17) inhibitor. These are injected under the skin or through an IV.
What is Ankylosing Spondylitis | Ankylosing Spondylitis dietMed E Guru

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I just need a review on this particular peer discussion. Please feel free to add any questions you my have.
Chiari (kee-AH-ree) malformation (CM) is a condition in which brain tissue extends into the spinal canal. It occurs when part of the skull is misshapen or smaller than is typical, pressing on the brain and forcing it downward.
According to Johns Hopkins, an acquired Chiari malformation type I happens to a person after birth. It is caused by the excess leaking of spinal fluid from the lower back (lumbar) or chest (thoracic) areas of the spine. This can happen because of an injury, contact with harmful substances, or an infection.
If you have been diagnosed with Chiari malformation, one of the first questions you may have is, “Can Chiari malformation get worse?” The simple answer is, yes, it can, which is why many (though not all) patients will require treatment.

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When an Chiari malformation goes untreated, a CM can block the normal flow of this fluid and cause pressure within the head that can result in mental impairment and/or an enlarged or misshapen skull. Severe hydrocephalus, if left untreated, can be fatal. Hydrocephalus can occur with any type of Chiari malformation, but is most commonly associated with Type II.
Patients with Chiari type I malformation are typically diagnosed in adulthood and have a normal life expectancy and experience good outcomes with treatment and/or surgery. Despite extensive malformations, some patients with Chiari II have normal intelligence and can function independently. One of the symptoms of a person with CM would be headaches in the lower back of the head and the neck, often worse with coughing or bending over, nausea, numbness or tingling or problems with balance and coordination.
https://www.migraineagain.com › arnold-chiari-malformat…
Also, if you have CM, choose food or drink that is rich in the amino acid tryptophan, such as a milky drink. Avoid stimulants, like caffeine and nicotine, before going to bed. If your Chiari malformation is causing symptoms like headache and neck pain, a soft pillow that is not too deep may be more comfortable.
https://www.emedicinehealth.com › article_em
There is currently no cure for Chiari malformation, but treatment helps to relieve symptoms and restore quality of life. Chiari type I treatment is based on a number of factors, including symptom severity and whether or not a syrinx exists. A syrinx is a fluid-filled pocket, or cyst, in the spinal cord. This condition also known as syringomyelia. As the cyst fills with cerebrospinal fluid, it expands, putting pressure on the spinal cord. Syringomyelia associated with a Chiari malformation usually does not require direct treatment. In most cases, syringomyelia improves on its own after surgery to correct a Chiari malformation because the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid is restored.
https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org › conditions-and-diseases
What is the best way to sleep with Chiari malformation?
Your best bet is usually sleeping on your back or on your side. These sleeping positions will help to keep a neutral spine position and allow the support of the natural curve of your spine. https://seattleneuro.com
Chiari can affect your breathing, as a result of compression of the brainstem which can affect the nerves that control breathing, contributing to central sleep apnea. On a physical level, Chiari malformations can also cause muscle weakness in the throat and contribute to obstructive sleep apnea. Other symptoms of Chiari Malformation can be chest pain, episodes of rapid heart rate (tachycardia), black out spells, and hypertension.
; https://www.sleepfoundation.org
Another type of CM is Chiari malformation type 2 (CM type II), in which both the cerebellum and brain stem tissue extends into the foramen magnum (the hole at the skull base for passing of the spinal cord). CM type II is usually accompanied by a myelomeningocele (a form of spina bifida that occurs when the spinal canal and backbone do not close before birth), which can result in partial or complete paralysis of the area below the spinal opening. While the severity of CM type II can vary greatly, it can potentially cause serious complications during infancy or childhood. The exact cause of CM type II is not known but it appears to be due to defects in the brain and spinal cord that occur during fetal development. Hydrocephalus can occur with any type of Chiari malformation, but is most commonly associated with Type II.
https://www.ninds.nih.gov › patient-caregiver-education
Type 2 Chiari malformation is associated with spina bifida and is present at birth. Surgery can address symptoms such as headache, hydrocephalus, sleep apnea and others. Infants with myelomeningocele (spina bifida) and symptomatic Type II Chiari malformations continue to have significant morbidity and mortality. Most report up to a 50 percent long-term mortality, regardless of the treatment strategy.
https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org › health › chiari-malf…

Choose one specific location on the body (e.g., hand, thigh, abdomen, etc.) and

Choose one specific location on the body (e.g., hand, thigh, abdomen, etc.) and respond to the following in a post of at least 300 words:
Describe the structure of each layer of skin at your chosen location and how it is related to its specific function at that location.
Describe how the structure of skin appendages present at your chosen location is adapted for its given function.
What joints are present in your chosen location? Describe the structure of the joint(s) and associated bones and other structures. What function does this joint perform?

Introduction The public health issue that I chose is childhood obesity. Childhoo

The public health issue that I chose is childhood obesity.
Childhood obesity is a
worldwide health issue that is progressively worsening over
time. “Childhood obesity is one of
the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century
and prevalent global public health
issue as children. The problem is global, and it has been
seen in both developed and developing
countries. It is steadily affecting many low and middle-income
countries, particularly in urban
settings” (Chavan, et al., 2020, p. 3726). Children across
the world are influenced by their
parents and the nutritional choices that they make for them,
and those choices are carried over
into their adult lives and can have detrimental outcomes for
some children. Family influence is
one of the greatest factors in play for childhood obesity.
“At the center of the problem is the
family, with its overarching impact on a child’s future.
Whether obesity develops in a child
depends significantly on family-related influences (genetic
predispositions, physical activity, and
food consumption practices)” (Moore, et al., 2017, p. 824).
Children are likely to follow habits
that are created in childhood for most of their lives which is
why if a child becomes obese, they
are likely to carry that into adulthood.
Population Demographics
Children are a very vulnerable population worldwide. They
are always influenced by
others around them by people of many relations to them such
as parents, grandparents, other
family members, and friends. In my home state of Georgia,
the obesity rate percentage is
astonishing. “In Georgia, 18% of youth ages 10 to 17 have
obesity, giving Georgia a ranking of
14 among the 50 states and D.C. Children ages 2-4
participating in WIC have a 13.6& obesity
rate, high school students have an 18.3% obesity rate”
(State Obesity Data, n.d.). Majority of
children in low-income areas are obese because of the pure
fact that it costs less to eat meals that
are very unhealthy such as fast food or processed foods in
the grocery store.
Current Initiatives
There are numerous initiatives in Georgia that have been
implemented to try and decrease
childhood obesity and increase access to healthier foods for
children. There are several programs
such as supplemental nutrition assistance program (SNAP),
summer food service program
(SFSP), head start, WIC (women’s, infants, children), child
and adult care food program
(CACFP), and national school lunch program (NSLP). “SNAP has
1,281,051 Georgia residents
in 2020, SNAP children have 721,000 participating residents
in 2018, SFSP has 80,055 Georgia
students participating in 2019, head start has 19,907
children participating in 2019, WIC has
202,914 residents participating, CAFCP has 153,933 students
participating in 2019 with
80,773,064 total meals served annually in 2019, and NSLP has
1,173,209 children that were
participating and eligible for free/reduced price lunch in
2016-2017” (State Obesity Data, n.d.).
These initiatives are in place to increase availability to
healthier food choices whether it is
grocery shopping with SNAP benefits and making lunches free
to children at school and
providing more nutritious meals/options. Summer food
programs provide the same type of meals
to families that are provided normally during the school
year to ensure that children can eat
during the months they are out of school.
Recommended Initiatives
Initiatives that are in place have helped some but there are
also other ways that we could
improve the initiatives that are in place as well as add
some new initiatives to improve the
outcome. SNAP benefits are used by the parents to buy food
for the household but there are not
very many restrictions on these foods. Parents can go to the
grocery store and use these benefits
to buy all kinds of unhealthy foods without any type of
restriction on this. This means that they
could go to the grocery store and leave with mostly
processed foods such as chips, pop-tarts,
sodas, juices, fruit snacks and other things of that nature.
If there was a certain percentage of the
money given that was only available to be spent on healthier
choices such as fruits, vegetables,
meats, and dairy then it would make it easier to prevent
overeating of the unhealthiest foods. An
allotment of 80% for healthy foods and maybe 15-20% of some
processed foods or snacks could
make a big difference. WIC benefits are one of the healthier
nutritional programs that should be
expanded and somehow incorporated into the SNAP benefit
program. WIC vouchers are given to
individuals, and they are required to choose certain foods
such as wheat breads, milk, cheese,
fruits, and vegetables this makes it impossible to use these
benefits to promote unhealthy eating
Many times, companies and food manufacturers know what kids
like, and they tend to
not really have the best interest of the children or adults
for that matter in mind. “High BMI in
early ages tightly links to several negative health
consequences in adulthood. It associates with
higher odds of such chronic disease as type 2 diabetes and
cardiovascular disease. In addition,
this vulnerable young-age group is also the target customers
of corporations of processed food
and energy-dense products” (Nga, et al., 2019, p. 2496).
Placing restrictions on marketing
unhealthy foods and requiring nutritional information be
provided seems minimal in restrictions
for these corporations because they are still mass producing
these products that are extremely
unhealthy. Making these products harder to mass produce or
market and placing restrictions on
these types of products which take advantage of one of the
most vulnerable populations may
increase the cost and make them less likely choices for
parents which would decrease the amount
of unhealthy intake for children.
Education is always one of the biggest ways of improving
health outcomes. Children are
like sponges, and they are eager to learn about everything.
Schools should implement an
educational program for children starting in elementary
school to give them the tools they need
to be successful in fighting obesity for themselves.
Parental education as well as educating the
children will be extremely beneficial. I had recently done a
capstone project on the same topic,
and I implemented an educational program with elementary
school children which got them
involved in choosing their own foods in a sense. I chose
younger children because they are more
easily influenced. I set up an educational program in which
we created a course about grocery
shopping and nutrition. This program allowed children to be
involved in shopping and making
nutritional choices. I educated them on healthy foods,
unhealthy foods, and the reasoning behind
choosing certain foods to stay healthy. We also educated
them on the importance of physical
activity but that no matter how much you exercised if you
didn’t eat a healthy diet there would
still be issues. These children at the end of the
educational program were allowed to go shopping
in a setting that we arranged a store and put all types of
foods in it for them to choose from.
Majority of the children made healthier choices after being
educated and were going home and
explaining why they needed to eat different things so that
they could be healthy and not get sick
when they were older. I had many parents reach out after the
project that had been greatly
influenced and this education made a huge difference in the
one school so I feel like a similar
implementation in a larger population would be even more
This topic is such a huge problem worldwide but even more so
in the United States. I
would use this topic in my capstone to promote healthier
lifestyles in children. I work in a
pediatric outpatient office in my rural community and see
many children who struggle with
obesity, and I know what their future is going to look like
if they continue the path that they are
being led down. Many of these children develop numerous
health issues such as hypertension,
hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, anxiety, depression, and
many other disorders that can be
detrimental for their long term physical and mental health.
Children experience bullying and
learn even more unhealthy coping skills to try and deal with
these things that cause further
decline in their health. My capstone project I would like to
survey these at-risk kids and help to
develop a plan for them and make changes to ensure that they
are given the tools to be successful
and make choices for themselves that are healthy when they
are able too. These children all have
a voice, and they should be educated as well to understand
that there are consequences to food
choices and activity choices that are made when you are
younger that can have lifelong effects
for you. Education for both the parents and the children
could make a world of difference and
possibly with other initiatives can influence everyone
including parents and children to make
lifestyle changes to ensure that all children have the best
chance at a healthy and fulfilling life.
Chavan, R., Jabade, M., & Dumbre, D. (2020). Prevalence
of Childhood Obesity and its
Prevention-Systematic Review. Indian Journal of Forensic
Medicine & Toxicology, 14(4),
3726-3730. https://doi-org.su.idm.oclc.org/10.37506/ijfmt.v14i4.122110
Moore, E. S., Wilkie, W. L., & Desrochers, D. M. (2017).
All in the Family? Parental Roles in
the Epidemic of Childhood Obesity. Journal of Consumer
Research, 43(5), 824-859.
Nga, V. T., Dung, V. N. T., Chu, D.-T., Tien, N. L. B., Van
Thanh, V., Ngoc, V. T. N., Hoan, L. N.,
Phuong, N. TT., Pham, V.-H., Tao, Y., Linh, N. P., Show, P.
L., & Do, D.-L. (2019). School
education and childhood obesity: A systemic review. Diabetes
& Metabolic Syndrome:
Clinical Research and Reviews, 13(4), 2495-2501. https://doiorg.
State Obesity Data. The State of Childhood Obesity.
(n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2022, from

State Obesity Data

Please click on the link below to access the following: To bridge the personal c

Please click on the link below to access the following:
To bridge the personal communication gap created by the online format of the class, students will be expected to complete a personal introduction and offer article reviews and/or comments to other students’ reviews, 6 per Segment (3 posts and 3 replies). There will be three Discussion Forums, with the windows ending with those of Exam 1, 2, and 3. Please note that in order to get credit for replies/comments on the WSJ articles, there must be some kind of substance to the posting, i.e. “I Agree” will not earn credit.
The video above was created by the professor (Martin Luytjes, 2019) to help you familiarize yourself with the Wall Street Journal and the assignment expectations.

Instructions Pick a region of the body (e.g., pectoral girdle, hand, neck, thigh

Pick a region of the body (e.g., pectoral girdle, hand, neck, thigh, etc.) and prepare a written paper of at least 1000 words on the following bullet points:
Describe the type(s) of muscle, patterns of fascicle organization, actions, and attachment points for the muscles present in your chosen region.
Trace the pathways by which the presence of a sensory stimulus (e.g., a bug crawling across your skin) in your chosen region is processed and the subsequent motor behavior that carried out. Be sure to identify the initiation and termination points of the tracts, where the cell bodies of the neurons present in the pathway are located, along with locations of any synapses that occur along the tract.
Focusing on one specific movement performed by muscles in your chosen region, identify the prime mover, synergists, and antagonists.
Predict how a stroke in the primary somatosensory cortex would affect both the anatomy and function of your chosen region differently than a stroke in the primary motor cortex.

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