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Category: Biology (and other Life Sciences) (Page 1 of 3)

Do you agree with their determination regarding CITES designation for their spec

Do you agree with their determination regarding CITES designation for their species? Discuss how their reasoning for supporting or discouraging CITES listing may also apply to your species.
Did you know about the technology or method shared? Do you think it is one that will be utilized to help protect and/or manage species? Explain why. Provide suggestions for how it could be improved to allow for greater usage and/or collaboration, protect more or different species, etc.
Article to be used:
CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an agreement between governments whose goal is to make sure that the international trade of animals and plants does not affect the survival of the species.
Species that are listed on CITES are categorized according to the level of threat that the species is under. Appendix I includes the most endangered species, while Appendix II lists species that are not currently threatened with extinction but may become so if trade is not closely monitored. Appendix III lists species that are included as a request of a party that already regulates trade and needs help to prevent illegal exploitation (CITES, 2022).
My species, the Nassau grouper, is not on the CITES database. This is because Nassau grouper is not threatened due to trade or illegal capture. This species is threatened due to overfishing and habitat loss. Many regulations are in place to protect the Nassau grouper.
I chose to use the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus) as the species to research that is on the CITES database. This species is listed under Appendix I and has been so since 1975 (CITES, 2022). I believe that the manatee being listed on Appendix I is appropriate based on their dwindling numbers. Manatee used to be hunted and these regulations help to protect them. Manatee are protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972.
Fin Finder is an app that enables customs inspectors to take a photo of a shark or ray fin and easily identify it. This app will help confiscate illegal animal parts that pass through airports and seaports around the world. Senior director of conservation technology at Conservation International, Eric Fegraus, said “inspectors around the world are overwhelmed. They are expected to do the almost impossible task of identifying thousands of illegally trafficked species-a job that even some animal experts would struggle with-plus they have almost no tools to help them.” This app can be downloaded on the Apple website (Price, K., 2022).
References
CITES. (2022). Retrieved from https://cites.org/eng (Links to an external site.)
Price, K. (2022). Conservation International. Retrieved from conservation.org/blog/new-app-aims-to-take-a-bite-out-of-illegal-shark-fin-trade

Do you agree with their determination regarding CITES designation for their spec

Do you agree with their determination regarding CITES designation for their species? Discuss how their reasoning for supporting or discouraging CITES listing may also apply to your species.
Did you know about the technology or method shared? Do you think it is one that will be utilized to help protect and/or manage species? Explain why. Provide suggestions for how it could be improved to allow for greater usage and/or collaboration, protect more or different species, etc.
Article to be used:
The oceanic whitetip shark is listed in Appendices II by CITES (CITES, 2019). It was issued approval in December of 2013 but was delayed 18 months before it was officially added in September 2014 (CITES, 2019). The main threat to these animals comes from bycatch, as their reproduction rate is not faster than their mortality rate, leaving them with less and less individuals as overfishing continues to occur (Hoyle, n.d.). They are also harvested for their fins and meat, as other countries like China and Southeast Asia, will use shark parts for ingredients in soup and other consumable items (Hoyle, n.d.). Appendix II contains a list of species that are not considered at threat of extinction presently, but may be in the future if trade is not closely monitored (CITES, 2019). Appendix II allows international trade of the species listed if authorized legally through a permit or re-export certificate (CITES, 2019). The requirement for an import permit is not necessary for the listed species (CITES, 2019). Appendix I provides a different set of regulations as it contains a list of the most endangered species, and prohibits international trade unless special permission is granted for things such as research for example (CITES, 2019). In these exceptional cases, an import and export permit must be granted (CITES, 2019). I believe that oceanic whitetip sharks are incorrectly listed and should be on Appendix I as their population has reduced over 93% in the last three generations (Oceanic Whitetip Shark Carcharhinus Longimanus, n.d.). This is a steep decline and needs for higher protection should be at the forefront of their recovery plan (Oceanic Whitetip Shark Carcharhinus Longimanus, n.d.). When it comes to reducing the risk of bycatch, there are various things that need to be considered. One of the most effective ways of mitigating this issue is through making changes to fishing gear (Morgan, 2014).These changes include using circle hooks, banning wire leaders, and using repellents to deter sharks away(Morgan, 2014).These are all products that exist already and need to be integrated into fishing procedures so that shark bycatch reduction can happen, and healthy populations can be restored (Morgan, 2014).
Here is a link to the study that focused on these mitigation efforts:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263441649_Fisheries_Bycatch_of_Sharks_Options_for_Mitigation (Links to an external site.)
References
CITES. (2019). The CITES Appendices | CITES. Cites.org. https://cites.org/eng/app/index.php
Hoyle, S. (n.d.). Renat o Lessa Populat ion Trends in Pacific Oceanic Sharks and t he Ut ilit y of Regulat ions on Shark Finning. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444302516.ch11
Morgan, A. (2014). Fisheries Bycatch of Sharks: Options for Mitigation.
Oceanic whitetip shark Carcharhinus longimanus. (n.d.).

Infectious Disease Project Topic For your final essay, you will be preparing a p

Infectious Disease Project
Topic
For your final essay, you will be preparing a persuasive response to the following question:
In a world where we each have the autonomy to decide what we do with our own bodies including the decision to treat a specific illness, take a vaccine or opt for physician-assisted suicide. How do we persuade others to prevent future incidents of disease (caused by your pathogen) and mitigate current infections of your pathogen?
Just like right now with the pandemic, people are going to be divided on the idea of persuasion to do something versus something else. In a good persuasive essay, the writer will anticipate reasons a person might give against your recommendation and ward those off in the essay.
Essay Instructions
1. Use what you have learned this semester about your pathogen to help write your response. You should be able to provide significant support to your work with the information you have studied about your pathogen – You are the “expert” on your selected topic.
2. The essay must be at least three pages (of content) – double-spaced with 1” margins. You must provide a title page and reference page – five pages total.
3. The essay should be in APA format. For more help on formatting in APA, go to the OWL APA Formatting Guide Webpage.
• Page 1→Title page – Name, Date, Institution, Intructor and Course Name/Number
• Pages 2 – 4→Three pages of content
• Page 4→Works Cited page should be setup according to the APA guidelines and include a
minimum of five peer-reviewed journal articles to support your work.
Your essay should include an introduction or background on the pathogen (enough to support your reasons
why this is necessary); at least THREE arguments to support your work; address an opposing viewpoint; and a
conclusion paragraph.

4. If it is one minute after, it will not be graded and you will get a zero (no excuses, no debates).
5. *REMINDER* Peer-reviewed sources must be from academic journals – no wikis, encyclopedias, magazines, etc.
6. The essay will be checked by the SafeAssign software for plagiarism – be sure to cite your sources. If you directly quote another author – these are not your words and should be cited accordingly. I highly recommend that you review your SafeAssign score and Originality Report. If your score is ≥40 – 50% and you have a bunch of direct citations, you need to adjust your essay and resubmit the assignment.
• It is okay to have direct quotes if they are cited appropriately.
• It is NOT okay to compile an endless series of direct quotes as an essay.
7. Essay should be prepared using Microsoft Word. You all of access to the Office Suite using the student
portal.
8. Rubric – you should review the grading rubric prior to submitting your essay to ensure that you meet
the minimum requirements for the assignment and prevent careless errors and loss of points.

Required Submissions A 1000-1500 word podcast script document Step 1 Review the

Required Submissions
A 1000-1500 word podcast script document
Step 1
Review the requirements for this podcast script.
In this assignment, you will explain the roles of DNA, inheritance, evolution, and biodiversity in our environment in a written podcast script containing two segments. The podcast script requirements are listed here:
Podcast Segment 1 Title: Garden Variety Inheritance
Take this segment “outside,” as you walk through an imaginary vegetable garden. This will provide the backdrop for a conversation about the Punnett square and its ability to determine inheritance. Use examples from a garden to predict the development of your future vegetable crop.
Examine a plant in your garden that is exhibiting signs of infection. Break down the reproductive cycle of an RNA virus, most common for plant species, using step-by-step analysis. Close with a few helpful tips on how listeners can guard their plants from infection.
Perform an on-air experiment to determine if you are colorblind. Provide your listeners with the parent genotypes in your Punnett square so that they can follow along. This experiment will allow you the opportunity to discuss sex-linked genes and their ability to pass down family traits. Be sure to explain what the sex chromosomes are.
Podcast Segment 2 Title: It’s a Big, Bio-Diverse World Out There
Define evolutionary adaptation and provide the most interesting examples you can find to help engage the listeners.
Outline the process of natural selection. Begin with a brief history of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. Then provide examples of natural selection that we see every day, such as insect populations that have grown resistant to certain pesticides.
Depict a scenario in which a biologist for the Smithsonian Institution is assembling a new leopard exhibit. Take this opportunity to explain the phylogenetic tree and how it enables you to track the evolutionary history of a given species.
Step 2
Write a two-segment podcast script.
In a 1000-1500 word document, write a two-segment podcast script that meets the topical requirements listed in Step 1. Format your script in the following manner:
All podcast segments should be contained in a single document.
Label each podcast segment with the podcast segment title provided in the script requirements.
At the end of the script, cite the sources you used in APA style (explore the Purdue OWL (Links to an external site.) website for examples). This information will not count toward your final page count total.
Use clear, concise sentences.
Use language intended for a listener as opposed to a reader. Include language that helps your audience follow along, such as “I want to talk more in depth about….”
Relate the material back to your personal experience, when possible.
Read the script out loud to yourself before finalizing it.
Outcomes:
Explain the flow of genetic information from DNA, through RNA, to protein
Analyze different patterns of genetic inheritance
Explain the mechanisms of evolution
Analyze the relationship between biodiversity and evolution
Analyze the structure of the DNA molecule in relation to its function of information storage
Describe the structure of the human genome
Explain control of genetic expression
Analyze the inheritance of genetic disorders
Summarize evidence that supports evolutionary theory
Explain how units of biodiversity are classified
Explain how biodiversity is gained and lost
Describe the diversity of life
Assignment Overview
For this project milestone, you will create a podcast script that explains the roles of DNA, inheritance, evolution, and biodiversity in our environment. A podcast is an audio file that listeners can download about a topic of their choice. You will not need to create an audio file, but you will need to submit a written script that could be used for this purpose.

Required Submissions A 1000-1500 word podcast script document Step 1 Review the

Required Submissions
A 1000-1500 word podcast script document
Step 1
Review the requirements for this podcast script.
In this assignment, you will explain the roles of DNA, inheritance, evolution, and biodiversity in our environment in a written podcast script containing two segments. The podcast script requirements are listed here:
Podcast Segment 1 Title: Garden Variety Inheritance
Take this segment “outside,” as you walk through an imaginary vegetable garden. This will provide the backdrop for a conversation about the Punnett square and its ability to determine inheritance. Use examples from a garden to predict the development of your future vegetable crop.
Examine a plant in your garden that is exhibiting signs of infection. Break down the reproductive cycle of an RNA virus, most common for plant species, using step-by-step analysis. Close with a few helpful tips on how listeners can guard their plants from infection.
Perform an on-air experiment to determine if you are colorblind. Provide your listeners with the parent genotypes in your Punnett square so that they can follow along. This experiment will allow you the opportunity to discuss sex-linked genes and their ability to pass down family traits. Be sure to explain what the sex chromosomes are.
Podcast Segment 2 Title: It’s a Big, Bio-Diverse World Out There
Define evolutionary adaptation and provide the most interesting examples you can find to help engage the listeners.
Outline the process of natural selection. Begin with a brief history of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. Then provide examples of natural selection that we see every day, such as insect populations that have grown resistant to certain pesticides.
Depict a scenario in which a biologist for the Smithsonian Institution is assembling a new leopard exhibit. Take this opportunity to explain the phylogenetic tree and how it enables you to track the evolutionary history of a given species.
Step 2
Write a two-segment podcast script.
In a 1000-1500 word document, write a two-segment podcast script that meets the topical requirements listed in Step 1. Format your script in the following manner:
All podcast segments should be contained in a single document.
Label each podcast segment with the podcast segment title provided in the script requirements.
At the end of the script, cite the sources you used in APA style (explore the Purdue OWL (Links to an external site.) website for examples). This information will not count toward your final page count total.
Use clear, concise sentences.
Use language intended for a listener as opposed to a reader. Include language that helps your audience follow along, such as “I want to talk more in depth about….”
Relate the material back to your personal experience, when possible.
Read the script out loud to yourself before finalizing it.
Outcomes:
Explain the flow of genetic information from DNA, through RNA, to protein
Analyze different patterns of genetic inheritance
Explain the mechanisms of evolution
Analyze the relationship between biodiversity and evolution
Analyze the structure of the DNA molecule in relation to its function of information storage
Describe the structure of the human genome
Explain control of genetic expression
Analyze the inheritance of genetic disorders
Summarize evidence that supports evolutionary theory
Explain how units of biodiversity are classified
Explain how biodiversity is gained and lost
Describe the diversity of life
Assignment Overview
For this project milestone, you will create a podcast script that explains the roles of DNA, inheritance, evolution, and biodiversity in our environment. A podcast is an audio file that listeners can download about a topic of their choice. You will not need to create an audio file, but you will need to submit a written script that could be used for this purpose.

Required Submissions A 1000-1500 word podcast script document Step 1 Review the

Required Submissions
A 1000-1500 word podcast script document
Step 1
Review the requirements for this podcast script.
In this assignment, you will explain the roles of DNA, inheritance, evolution, and biodiversity in our environment in a written podcast script containing two segments. The podcast script requirements are listed here:
Podcast Segment 1 Title: Garden Variety Inheritance
Take this segment “outside,” as you walk through an imaginary vegetable garden. This will provide the backdrop for a conversation about the Punnett square and its ability to determine inheritance. Use examples from a garden to predict the development of your future vegetable crop.
Examine a plant in your garden that is exhibiting signs of infection. Break down the reproductive cycle of an RNA virus, most common for plant species, using step-by-step analysis. Close with a few helpful tips on how listeners can guard their plants from infection.
Perform an on-air experiment to determine if you are colorblind. Provide your listeners with the parent genotypes in your Punnett square so that they can follow along. This experiment will allow you the opportunity to discuss sex-linked genes and their ability to pass down family traits. Be sure to explain what the sex chromosomes are.
Podcast Segment 2 Title: It’s a Big, Bio-Diverse World Out There
Define evolutionary adaptation and provide the most interesting examples you can find to help engage the listeners.
Outline the process of natural selection. Begin with a brief history of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. Then provide examples of natural selection that we see every day, such as insect populations that have grown resistant to certain pesticides.
Depict a scenario in which a biologist for the Smithsonian Institution is assembling a new leopard exhibit. Take this opportunity to explain the phylogenetic tree and how it enables you to track the evolutionary history of a given species.
Step 2
Write a two-segment podcast script.
In a 1000-1500 word document, write a two-segment podcast script that meets the topical requirements listed in Step 1. Format your script in the following manner:
All podcast segments should be contained in a single document.
Label each podcast segment with the podcast segment title provided in the script requirements.
At the end of the script, cite the sources you used in APA style (explore the Purdue OWL (Links to an external site.) website for examples). This information will not count toward your final page count total.
Use clear, concise sentences.
Use language intended for a listener as opposed to a reader. Include language that helps your audience follow along, such as “I want to talk more in depth about….”
Relate the material back to your personal experience, when possible.
Read the script out loud to yourself before finalizing it.
Outcomes:
Explain the flow of genetic information from DNA, through RNA, to protein
Analyze different patterns of genetic inheritance
Explain the mechanisms of evolution
Analyze the relationship between biodiversity and evolution
Analyze the structure of the DNA molecule in relation to its function of information storage
Describe the structure of the human genome
Explain control of genetic expression
Analyze the inheritance of genetic disorders
Summarize evidence that supports evolutionary theory
Explain how units of biodiversity are classified
Explain how biodiversity is gained and lost
Describe the diversity of life
Assignment Overview
For this project milestone, you will create a podcast script that explains the roles of DNA, inheritance, evolution, and biodiversity in our environment. A podcast is an audio file that listeners can download about a topic of their choice. You will not need to create an audio file, but you will need to submit a written script that could be used for this purpose.

Respond with your own additional reference to further deepen our understanding o

Respond with your own additional reference to further deepen our understanding of the topic or issue at hand. Build upon the knowledge they previously presented, show a different perspective, take an opposing viewpoint, or strengthen a classmate’s argument. Each post should include a citation for your additional reference in APA format, a direct link to the additional reference, and be no more than 250 words. (order is for 275 but please keep to the limit in the instructions)
Article to be used:
The scene from the documentary that I am choosing to discuss was from time slot 54:50-57:19. During this time they discussed fishing dogfish and how if you fish dogfish it is way less limited and restricted like the cod fishing is. You do not need an observer or to declare and the population is so high that they are barely making a dent when fishing (Abel, & Liss, Laub, & Abel, 2017). The scene shifts to a local chef, Johnathan Haffmans, who talks about how he was “forced” to shift to serving dogfish meals in his restaurant because of the shortage of cod and that it is actually very tasteful and great to cook with. It goes to another scene where they are getting people who want to serve sustainable seafood in their places to try dogfish dishes.
I chose this group of scenes because I found it intriguing but also slightly disturbing that they were fishing for dogfish and then eating it. As I am sure it is the same with others, when I see people fishing for sharks or recommend eating sharks, my mind doesn’t think sustainable, it goes to the more dark side of illegal fishing like shark finning and shark fin soup. Then there is the part I see where they are discussing how abundant this population is, it recovers every year and it is a solution to the cod fishery being overfished. I wanted to look into more about how the eating and fishing of dogfish was in Cape Cod.
Starting with fishing, currently there are no size limits on dogfish but there is a 7,500 pound limit per trip for commercial fishing vessels (Fisheries, 2022). The current commercial quota is 29.56 million pounds and that is up til April 30, 2023 (Fisheries, 2022). It seems as if the regulations for the fishing of dogfish are pretty laid back due to the immense population. In 2011 the stock was declared not overfished or no overfishing occurring and the next assessment was scheduled for 2021 (Fisheries, 2022). Just like in the documentary the dogfish stocks are in good health and seem to be staying that way consistently making them a good species for sustainable seafood catch. These rules agree with the documentary statements.
Like stated in the documentary, catching all the dogfish is great but you need a market in order to make any money out of it. This is where convincing people that this is something that could replace cod or be a temporary substitute until that stock bounces back. First question I thought of was how would it even taste? It is described as, sweet and mild with a flaky but firm texture (Is Dogfish Safe to Eat? – Fishmasters.com, 2020). In Europe they have been eating dogfish for quite some time in their famous fish and chips typically (Is Dogfish Safe to Eat? – Fishmasters.com, 2020). Now it is time to try and create a good market for it in the U.S, especially in Cape Cod. One hurdle is the marketing, which they mention in this article: (Goldfarb, 2016). The name dogfish is not always appealing but neither is the other term they came up for it, cape shark (Goldfarb, 2016). People have the perception (just like I did) that eating sharks is bad, so that can be a tricky situation to get a market to want to eat this fish. Another issue, is the levels of mercury that can be contained in dogfish. In 2014 a study was done that found many dogfish exceeded the .30 parts per million of mercury that is the regulation (Goldfarb, 2016). This has been combated stating that many times dogfish contain less mercury than many tuna do. It seems although they are trying, they are still not as successful as switching over completely or enough to a dogfish economy in Cape Cod.

Links:
https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/species/atlantic-spiny-dogfish#overview (Links to an external site.)
https://fishmasters.com/can-you-eat-dogfish/ (Links to an external site.)
https://www.bostonmagazine.com/restaurants/2016/08/14/dogfish/ (Links to an external site.)
References:
Abel, D. (Producer), & Liss, S., Laub, A., & Abel, D. (Directors). (2017). Sacred cod [Streaming video]. United States: Bullfrog Films. https://docuseek2-com.proxy1.unity.edu/bf-scod.
Fisheries, N. (2022, April 29). Atlantic Spiny Dogfish | NOAA Fisheries. NOAA. https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/species/atlantic-spiny-dogfish#overview
Goldfarb, B. (2016). Cod is Dead- Is Dogfish the Answer [Review of Cod is Dead- Is Dogfish the Answer]. Boston Magazine. https://www.bostonmagazine.com/restaurants/2016/08/14/dogfish/
Is Dogfish Safe to Eat? – Fishmasters.com. (2020, December 16). https://fishmasters.com/can-you-eat-dogfish/

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