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Category: Linguistics (Page 1 of 2)

1. Crosscultural Variation In your reading for group work this week, Alter descr

1. Crosscultural Variation
In your reading for group work this week, Alter describes a series of experiments by Nisbett and Cohen (pdf pages 16-19) on the way that employers, journalists, and college-aged men from southern, western, and northern states responded to threatening situations and/or descriptions of violence and how their responses related to the “culture of honor” in each geographic region.
What is your opinion of the causal relationship that Alter describes between culture and response to threats? Do you buy his story? Why or why not? Are there cultural factors other than geographic region that you think are important to take into account?
None of the Nisbett and Cohen studies include the Midwest as a region of interest. How do you think Midwesterners would respond to threats to their honor or forgive violence in the name of honor? Why? (Feel free to make your comparison to just one of the three studies by Nisbett and Cohen that Alter describes.)
2. Does the figure Ching K’o meet your expectations for a “knight/xia”? Why or why not?

4) Crosscultural Variation In your reading for group work this week, Alter descr

4) Crosscultural Variation
In your reading for group work this week, Alter describes a series of experiments by Nisbett and Cohen (pdf pages 16-19) on the way that employers, journalists, and college-aged men from southern, western, and northern states responded to threatening situations and/or descriptions of violence and how their responses related to the “culture of honor” in each geographic region.
What is your opinion of the causal relationship that Alter describes between culture and response to threats? Do you buy his story? Why or why not? Are there cultural factors other than geographic region that you think are important to take into account?
None of the Nisbett and Cohen studies include the Midwest as a region of interest. How do you think Midwesterners would respond to threats to their honor or forgive violence in the name of honor? Why? (Feel free to make your comparison to just one of the three studies by Nisbett and Cohen that Alter describes.)

Please answer to the following question according to the my given pdf and links.

Please answer to the following question according to the my given pdf and links. I will give the link is given below.
Q) How do you think languages evolved? Are there any languages that are similar to your first language? How can you explain this similarity?
(N.B) Just one an half page writting this question.
Now it is time to learn about Historical Linguistics. For this, please do the following and take notes:
watch a video about the search of the first language: https://youtu.be/OK5WmmtSj3o. You may find the transcript for this video here: https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/2120glang.html. The video is not of the best quality as it is rather old, but it is a wonderful resource and the only copy we have access to.
read pp. 421-424, 434-442 (Finegan, 2008; see the chapter in the next step of this module). If your first language is not listed there, try to find to what family it belongs, using Internet resources like this one (https://www.theguardian.com/education/gallery/2015/jan/23/a-language-family-tree-in-pictures) or in the rest of the chapter.

R​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​equirements: A. A 15 to 20 page paper on some aspect of s

R​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​equirements:
A. A 15 to 20 page paper on some aspect of syntax or phonology The topic you select should be of interest to you and applicable to your work or study. IMPERATIVES
B. Paper sections should include the following: Front Matter (Title page, Abstract),
Introduction, History, Research on using/teaching, Methods on teaching/using,
Discussion/Conclusion, Back Matter (references, appendices).
C. A minimum of at least a 12 references from peer-reviewed articles and course texts: Celce-Murcia, M. & Larsen-Freeman, D. (2016). The Grammar Book (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle Publishers, Inc. ISBN: 9781111351861 and Yavas, M. (2016) Applied English Phonology. (3rd ed.) Blackwell Publishers.
D. APA formatting
Note: These are minimal requirements. To achieve a higher grad​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​e on this term paper, you must exceed
these requirements.
Problems seen in previous papers resulting in significant grade reductions include:
? Less than the required number of pages.
? Sources of information were not cited either within paper and/or in References.
? Sources listed in References were not cited within paper.
? Choppy/disconnected discourse, lacking conventional topic continuity.
? Less than the required number of sources.
? Few grammar illustrations/examples.
? Over-reliance on a few sources (thereby, in essence, making the paper more of a summary of someone else’s work than what should be novel integration of information, research, and conclusions).
? Little grammar content.
? Little integration of course content.
Note: Please avoid contractions and avoid personal pronou​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ns.

In this essay, you will compare and contrast human language and the vocal commun

In this essay, you will compare and contrast human language and the vocal communication of nonhuman primates. Specifically, you should analyze how the vocal communication systems of humans and nonhuman primates compare in terms of:
(1) production mechanism (anatomy and process);
(2) repertoires (types of signals and range of meanings that the signals convey); and
(3) underlying cognitive abilities (grammar, referentiality, intentionality, theory of mind, etc.).
Questions (1) and (2) should be discussed briefly; your primary focus is question (3), which should take up a majority of both space and emphasis in your essay. One of the key questions in the study of human language considers which aspects of language are uniquely human and which may be considered part of our primate heritage (see Zuberbuhler 2012). This is a difficult question, on which there is no consensus in the scientific community and you will not resolve the issue yourself. Your focus here should be on the cognitive aspects of communication.
Regarding question (2), we take it as given that human languages are capable of producing an unlimited variety of utterances and conveying a full range of meanings, intentions, and emotions (cf. Pinker, Ch. 2). As for (3), you can use what you know about your own language use and experiences to explore human cognition and communication. However, do not go into a lengthy discussion of human language; the focus should be on nonhuman primates for these questions.
Guidelines: Essays are assessed not only for content, but also for grammar, clarity, conciseness, and coherence. Strive to make your essays accurate, relevant and organized, and use academic English. Your writing should demonstrate an understanding of key scientific terms related to sound and communication, with accurate use of relevant technical terms. You might think of this as writing a short article directed towards an educated layperson, and it should read as a prose essay, not a lab report outlining observations. The purpose is to assess your writing skills in addition to your understanding of the material presented in class.
For source material, you may draw on a mix of course lectures, videos, and assigned readings, but to earn full credit, you must include material from (and properly cite) at least two articles from the course readings. You are, of course, welcome to use more than two course readings. No outside sources are required, though you are certainly welcome to draw on other research materials if you like. There is no need to provide citations for material you draw from lectures, unless the material originated from one of the readings or videos. Properly cite both in-text and at the end of the essay these and any other data drawn from course readings and videos. You may use either MLA or APA style citation as long as you are consistent in the citation format. If you do use additional sources, be sure to cite them as well. As with any academic writing, the ideas you present in your paper if they are from a specific source (other than ideas you came up with yourself) you must cite them both in-text (within the body of your paper) and at the end of the essay in a reference list.
Formatting and Submission
Provide your own original, descriptive title for your essay. (Do not simply copy and paste “Vocal Communication of Humans and Nonhuman Primates”).
Your essay must be a minimum of 1000 words long, but no longer than 1500 words. Include the word count in your document.
Document formatting should use a 12-point font, double-spaced, have 1-inch margins on all sides, and be saved in either doc/.docx or .pdf format only.
I linked resources down below you need to use 2 readings in this paragraph.

We took and interdisciplinary approach to understand the power of language in <<

We took and interdisciplinary approach to understand the power of language in
<
society. Thinking about politics, the media, geography, gender studies, comedy,
<
research on race, gender and age, etc. explain the ways this topic is better understood
<
by drawing from these disciplinary areas and how you better understand language
<
and power in society through this interdisciplinary approach.

Endangeredlanguages.com Brown, K. (Ed.). (2006). Encyclopedia of Language and Li

Endangeredlanguages.com
Brown, K. (Ed.). (2006). Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier.
The World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS)
Introduction
What is the name of the language? Both in English and in the language itself?
The language’s family (if you include a family tree, please do not hand-draw)
Language Community
Information about the language and community
Who speaks the language, where it is spoken, etc.
Is this language the primary one spoken by the community?
Is the language community bilingual or multilingual in other languages?
Status of the language in a larger nation-state (recognized, unrecognized)?
Information about the language’s varieties, either regional or sociological
Statistics on the number of speakers (when available)
Current language status (safe, threatened, endangered, dormant, etc.)
Is it a primarily oral language or does it have a written orthography?
Orthography (optional)
Description on the script or orthography when applicable or available
Is it an alphabet, syllabary, logographic, abjad (consonantary), etc.?
Sample of the graphemes and the corresponding sounds (if applicable)
Phonetics and Phonology
Phonological inventory (consonant and vowel chart, complete with axis labels)
Must be typed with the correct IPA symbols, single spaced for the tables
Some prose describing a few of the natural classes in the language
Description of some phonological rules or processes in the language (optional)
Morphology
Inflectional morpheme inventory
For inflectionally rich languages, is it more fusional or agglutinative?
Derivational morpheme inventory (optional)
Discussion about tense, mood, and aspect in the language (optional)
Syntax
What is the word order? (SOV, SVO, VSO, free word order)
Is the language pro-drop? Describe the pronoun system. (optional)
Is there grammatical gender? Describe grammatical number. (optional)
Whether the language is more analytic or more synthetic (or even polysynthetic)
Is the language head-marking or case-marking or both? (optional)
What is the alignment system? (optional)
Conclusion

We took and interdisciplinary approach to understand the power of language in <<

We took and interdisciplinary approach to understand the power of language in
<
society. Thinking about politics, the media, geography, gender studies, comedy,
<
research on race, gender and age, etc. explain the ways this topic is better understood
<
by drawing from these disciplinary areas and how you better understand language
<
and power in society through this interdisciplinary approach.

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